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阅读解题方法浅议
发布日期:2012-5-2 14:42:12 浏览次数:3140

    雅思考试阅读部分的阅读量是相当大的,再加上题目的数量大和难度高,使得大多数考生无法在要求时间内做完阅读部分的题目。通常在解答雅思阅读中面对段落标题配对这种题型时,很多考生习惯机械地通过阅读各个段落的首句、第二句或最后一句来寻找各个段落的主题句( topic sentence),即该段中归纳概括段落大意或中心思想的句子。但有些段落安排以及正确选项的归纳并没有考生期待的那么简单。我们首先总结一下,段落一般的结构应该归纳成以下重点:
    1. 段落由两个部分组成,即重要的内容,和次要的内容。
    2.我们以后可以把重要的内容叫做主题,而次要的内容叫做支持性的细节。因为雅思考试阅读部分的文章都是论说文,即以说理为主,说明为辅。
    3.一般而言,雅思考试文章的一段话中只有一个主题。
    4.细节支持主题,是为主题服务的。
    5.具体的数字这种内容在段落中的作用一般应该是支持性的细节。

 

    有效地找出段落主题句是做这种题型的时候最重要的技巧。那么具体怎样操作呢?我们先来看一下主题句的特点:内容:一般比较抽象概括位置:一般出现在两个位置的可能性最大:每段话的开头和结尾。例如:
    Privately held companies are voluntarily adding more scrutiny, as well. In a recent survey that drew responses from 1400 CFOs in such businesses, 58 percent said they are responding to new corporate-governance standards. Of those, 36 percent are creating or expanding internal auditing, according to Robert HALF management Resources. An American company with $3 billion to $4 billion in revenue typically has about 16 internal auditors. The job is often a training ground for future management positions, but those who stay in the field and become directors earn an average of just under $100,000. The IIA offers certification for internal auditors, but many firms do not require it.
    有时候主题句也会出现在整段话的最后。这样的结构安排,通常出现在一个讨论困难的、不为大众所接受的话题或者文章的主要目的是为了说服读者接受某种结论的段落中。因为先把道理说清楚,那么读者就会比较容易接受新的观点和看法。
    If the wind becomes gusty after a period of calm, you should seek shelter. The sky needs careful watching too. Gradual darkening and “boiling” clouds should quicken your pace. Lightening and thunder are common enough storm indicators, but few people realize that the brightness of the lightening is not nearly as important as the number of lightning flashes. The signs of an oncoming storm are many, and a person’s life may depend on his ability to interpret them,
    当文章出现转折让步的时候,忽略让步状语从句内容,重点关注转折部分,即but 或however等表示转折关系的连接词后面的内容。
    The risk of having a heart attack on any given day should be one in seven, but a six-year study coordinated by researchers at the Free University of Berlin of more tan 2,600 Germans revealed that the average person had a 20 percent higher chance of having a heart attack on a Monday than on any other day.
    当内容均为举例的时候,寻找不到主题句时必须略读举例内容,大致了解举例目的(即论据部分所支持的观点),并将其与选项进行对照,与举例目的表达相同观点的选项即为正解。
    The Dutch are not the only would-be moles. Growing numbers of Europeans are burrowing below ground to create houses, offices, discos and shopping malls…; in winter months in Montreal, Canada, for instance, citizens can escape the cold in an underground complex compete with shops and even health clinics. In Tokyo builders are planning a massive underground city to be begun in the next decade, and underground shopping malls are already common in Japan…
    本段举了三个例子我们不难总结出,举例的目的是要说明世界各地正着手开发包括地下城市,地下诊所,地下舞厅和地下购物中心在内的多样化地下服务设施。
    当段落中涉及多个观点内容时,正确答案常常依据段落中所占篇幅较多或作者要强调的观点来归纳。此段总共包含两个句子,但各句表明不同的观点。
    Building big commercial buildings underground can be a way to avoid distinguishing or threatening a beautiful or ‘environmentally sensitive’ landscape. Indeed many of the buildings which consume most land - such as cinemas, supermarkets, theatres, warehouses or libraries - have no need to be on the surface since they do not need windows.
    除了利用句子在段落中的位置来判断段落的主题句,总结细节推出主题句以外。段落中的关键词也是确定主题句的重要线索。希望同学们以后能够培养起对这些词汇的“敏感的感觉”,学会有效率地阅读。


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